Respiratory influenza (flu) is a viral infection of the nose, throat, and lungs. The viruses responsible for the flu are known as Influenza A and Influenza B. To help understand the relationship between diseases related to, or mistaken for, the flu consider the following:
• Influenza A and B are aggressive viruses that attack the respiratory system.
• A cold is also a viral infection from one of over a hundred viruses that are less aggressive than influenza A and B but can also attack the respiratory system.
• Avian (Bird) and H1N1 (Swine) are subtypes of influenza A. New strains evolve every few years. See a more detailed description at the end of this page.
• The stomach flu is also a viral infection but it attacks the stomach and intestines. These viruses are of different strains than cold or influenza A and B viruses.
• Flu and colds are viral not bacterial. Antibiotics will not help.
One to four days after the virus enters the body symptoms will begin. Typically a high fever from 102 to 106 °F (higher temperatures usually for children) is the first symptom. This will be followed by overall aches, headaches, chills, dizziness, and lack of energy. Some will experience nausea and vomiting. This can last 2 or 3 days and then symptoms may move to cold like symptoms of a runny nose, coughing, sneezing, and sore throat. For those severely weakened pneumonia is a danger. For others the tiredness and lack of energy can last for weeks.
Symptoms for a cold and the flu may be similar. A cold is much more common and less dangerous. Some differences and similarities are:
• The flu hits harder and faster. Symptoms develop rapidly and are very strong.
• For adults a fever usually means the flu.
• If it lasts for weeks it was the flu.
• Headaches, coughs, earaches happen with both.
• Early sore throat or runny nose it is probably a cold.
The flu is a highly contagious disease that can be transmitted by coughs, sneezing or other contact with someone that is contagious. This can occur from one day before someone shows symptoms to three to seven days after. This is further complicated since some can have the virus but not show any symptoms.
Influenza A is usually more aggressive and arrives between early winter and early spring. Influenza B can appear at any time of the year.
This is a viral infection of the stomach and intestines that often lead to diarrhea and vomiting in children and adults. The virus may come from contaminated food or water or can be spread from person to person. Beyond stomach discomforts symptoms may include chills, sweats, muscle and joint aches, and fever.
Here are some comments from the CDC (Center of Disease Control) on the most recent world wide flu scares:
West Nile virus (WNV) is a potentially serious illness. Experts believe WNV is established as a seasonal epidemic in North America that flares up in the summer and continues into the fall.
• What Can I Do to Prevent WNV? The easiest and best way to avoid WNV is to prevent mosquito bites.
• What Are the Symptoms of WNV?
- Serious Symptoms in a Few People. About one in 150 people infected with WNV will develop severe illness. The severe symptoms can include high fever, headache, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, vision loss, numbness and paralysis. These symptoms may last several weeks, and neurological effects may be permanent.
- Milder Symptoms in Some People. Up to 20 percent of the people who become infected have symptoms such as fever, headache, and body aches, nausea, vomiting, and sometimes swollen lymph glands or a skin rash on the chest, stomach and back. Symptoms can last for as short as a few days, though even healthy people have become sick for several weeks.
- No Symptoms in Most People. Approximately 80 percent of people (about 4 out of 5) who are infected with WNV will not show any symptoms at all.
• How Does West Nile Virus Spread? Most often, WNV is spread by the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on infected birds. WNV is not spread through casual contact such as touching or kissing a person with the virus.
Usually, “avian influenza virus” refers to influenza A viruses found chiefly in birds, but infections with these viruses can occur in humans. The risk from avian influenza is generally low to most people, because the viruses do not usually infect humans.
"Human influenza A viruses" usually refers to those influenza A subtypes that have spread widely among humans. Currently, H3N2 and H1N1 influenza A subtypes are circulating among humans and H2N2 influenza A circulated from about 1957-1968.
Some genetic parts of current human influenza A viruses had their origin in bird flu viruses originally. Influenza A viruses are constantly changing, and they might adapt over time to infect and spread among humans.
U.S.The U.S. Public Health Emergency for 2009 H1N1 Influenza expired on June 23, 2010. On August 10, 2010, the World Health Organization … Emergency Committee declared an end to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic globally. … Internationally, 2009 H1N1 viruses and seasonal influenza viruses are co-circulating in many parts of the world. It is likely that the 2009 H1N1 virus will continue to spread for years to come, like a regular seasonal influenza virus.
A Summary of Key Steps (Dr. Hill)
10 basics of prevention.
1. Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough sneeze or wipe your nose. Tissues should be discarded immediately in a wastebasket.
2. Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Discard the tissue immediately in a waste basket.
3. Run your diffuser often in your home. I know there has been much discussion on our diffuser lately, and we will address that in a blog soon to come. Dr. Hill and other leaders have much to say about that. What oils? OnGuard for sure. It was developed to boost our immune systems, and guard us against pathogens.
4. While we are talking on guard, I would also consider rubbing your own children's feet with on guard every night before bed time and every morning before they put there shoes on for the day. Not only is it a bonding experience for you and your children, but it will bolster there immune systems.
5. I would also mist your families bed sheets with a mist of essential oils before bedtime. 10 drops of on guard or some other essential oil with a ¼ cup of water in a spray bottle – shake well.
6. If there is virus in your area, obviously you want to avoid contact with those that are sick.
7. Put about 1 drop of lemon oil for every 8oz of water you and your family drink. Over time this will greatly strengthen the immune system. In our home, we have not had colds or flu of any significance in over a year since we started incorporating essential oils in our household. And this is one way we have been consistent with.
8. As always, as you clean regularly around your home, use essential oils to clean. Purify, On guard or lemon in a spray bottle used for cleaning will assure pathogen free surfaces.
9. Be aware and recognize symptoms if they strike you or a family member. Immediately begin an essential oil protocol and see a professional if you experience symptoms. Swine flu symptoms are similar to regular flu: Fever, body aches, sore throat, cough, runny nose, vomiting, diarrhea, and lethargy.
10. Make your home a happy place, free from stress. A haven with kind words and positive thoughts. Make a place of safety and refuge. As storms rage on, have your home be a house of prayer, gratitude and love. These are all things we can do that will create of synergy of protection for your home and family.
Now what do we do if we find ourselves faced with symptoms of the flu?
Protocol for Viral Flu
At the first indication of a symptom, strike back quick and hard. Make sure the oils you have are doTerra essential oils. Why? They are guaranteed to be sourced from the area’s in which the are indigenous to. They are organically grown. Harvested by correct methods and at the correct time. Distilled by professionals at the correct temperature and pressure. Finally each batch is tested by independent labs for correct constituents content to guarantee efficacy. These methods are key to insuring safety and effectiveness.
1. Make 00 size capsules of 8 drops oregano, 5 drops on guard and 3 drops frankincense. Then take the capsules internally twice daily.
2. Gargle twice daily with 1 drop oregano, 2 drops on guard, and 2 drops lemon in 1 or 2 tblspns of pure water. After gargling for 5-10 minutes, swallow the mixture.
3. Oil pull daily with 1 tablespoon VCO, 2 drops oregano, and 2 drops melaleuca. Pull for about 10 minutes before expectorating the blend. Then brush your teeth and rinse out your mouth. This mixture may be hot. If it’s too hot, reduce the oregano to 1 drop and add a drop of lemon. You can also consider cinnamon, cassia or on guard instead of melaleuca.
4. Always put lemon and peppermint in your drinking water and drink it often. Staying hydrated is an important part of assuring the oils work effectively in our bodies.
5. Consider other protocols for specific symptoms. Breathe to the chest, neck and back for respiratory issues, DigestZen (often in a capsule with frankincense) for nausea or digestive problems. Oregano or Cinnamon and Lemon as a gargle for sore throats.
6. In cases where there is obvious inflammation to the bronchial tubes including cracking or popping sounds while breathing from the chest, consider a rectal implant. 3 drops oregano, 3 drops frankincense, and 3 drops thyme in a capsule. Lubricate with virgin coconut oil then insert rectally. Al least twice daily. It is not pleasant, but highly effective and the quickest way to the lungs.
7. Diffuse the air that you are working, living and sleeping in. If you are suffering from symptoms, consider oils and blends that will help. If you are trying to quarantine areas of healthy air, diffuse on guard.
8. Do twice daily AromaTouch treatments. Look up the method on http://www.aroma-touch.com and use Virgin Coconut oil as a carrier for the recommended oils. Add the blend breathe and single thyme to Inflammatory reduction phase.
9. Eat healthy mostly raw foods.
10. Get plenty of rest, exercise and fresh air where possible. For children that can’t take internal treatments, use appropriate oils on their feet, chest and using the spinal treatment.
Oils that are an important part of your germ fighting arsenal and that are good to have around are; On Guard, Oregano, Cinnamon, Myrrh, Thyme, Basil, Clove, Lemon, Peppermint, and the AromaTouch oils. These essential oils have the ability to kill bacteria, fungi and viruses, get down into the cellular level and make things right. Essential Oils are proven natural combatants to boost the immune system and protect us from and combat against flu strains including the swine flu.
Oils, blends & products recommended:
Oils & Blends: Breathe, eucalyptus, frankincense, lavender, lemon, melaleuca, OnGuard, oregano, peppermint, Purify
Also consider: AromaTouch, Balance, basil, cassia, cinnamon, cypress, DigestZen, marjoram, rosemary, thyme
• Make 00 size capsules of 8 drops oregano, 5 drops OnGuard and 3 drops frankincense. Then take the capsules internally twice daily.
• Gargle twice daily with 1 drop oregano, 2 drops on guard, and 2 drops lemon in 1 or 2 tablespoons of pure water. After gargling for 5-10 minutes, swallow the mixture.
• Diffuse the air that you are working, living and sleeping in. If you are suffering from symptoms, consider oils and blends that will help. If you are trying to quarantine areas of healthy air, diffuse OnGuard.
• Use OnGuard wipes or foam cleanser to clean common use areas
• For children that can’t take internal treatments, use appropriate oils on their feet, chest and using the AromaTouch Technique
• Oil pull daily with 1 tablespoon VCO, 2 drops oregano, and 2 drops melaleuca. Pull for about 10 minutes before expectorating the blend. Then brush your teeth and rinse out your mouth. This mixture may be hot. If it’s too hot, reduce the oregano to 1 drop and add a drop of lemon. You can also consider cinnamon, cassia or OnGuard instead of melaleuca.
• Always put lemon and peppermint in your drinking water and drink it often. Staying hydrated is an important part of assuring the oils work effectively in our bodies.
• Consider other protocols for specific symptoms. Breathe to the chest, neck and back for respiratory issues, DigestZen (often in a capsule with frankincense) for nausea or digestive problems. Oregano or Cinnamon and Lemon as a gargle for sore throats.
• In cases where there is obvious inflammation to the bronchial tubes including cracking or popping sounds while breathing from the chest, consider a rectal implant. 3 drops oregano, 3 drops frankincense, and 3 drops thyme in a capsule. Lubricate with virgin coconut oil then insert rectally. Al least twice daily. It is not pleasant, but highly effective and the quickest way to the lungs.
• Do twice daily AromaTouch technique. Use Virgin Coconut oil as a carrier for the recommended oils. Add the blend Breathe and thyme to Inflammatory Reduction phase.
• Eat healthy mostly raw foods.
• Get plenty of rest, exercise and fresh air where possible. For children that can’t take internal treatments, use appropriate oils on their feet, chest and using the spinal treatment.
Testimonials (shared by Rob James)
Melanie - Help with swine flu, I remember someone having an example, what protocol was been recommended.Cynthia - I remember an example of a mom with a grade school child came down with swine flu and was back to school in a couple days, whereas the child next to them in class who also had swine flu was out for 2 weeks. Sorry I don't know which oils she used.
Alisse - Its called flu shot in a bottle. It is OnGuard, oregano and lemon with FCO. I don't know the exact proportions. I used it on my kids and I broke a fever of 105 on my 16 year old in 2 days and my other 4 kids didn't even get sick. It is awesome!
Natalie - My son had swine flu along with 4 other boys from his B-Ball team, I gave him 4 drops of oregano, lemon, and OnGuard in a capsule 3 times daily and used peppermint on his feet for the high fever. He was perfectly fine 3 days later. I did continue the capsules for 5 days. His friends took 6-10 days to recover and they all developed coughs that lasted even longer than that. My cousin had the same quick results with her son that used this protocol.
Deborah - With all the hype going around about the Swine Flu, the first thing on everyone's mind is: "how do I protect myself?". With this particular illness, common-sense is the first approach. Pay close attention to cleanliness, just the simple act of washing of the hands will ensure that bad microbes will not be transferred to other vulnerable parts of the body, i.e. eyes, nose, and mouth. You do not need to go out and buy any of those antiviral hand liquids, in fact, they are more of a detriment as they contain mostly alcohol. Unfortunately, alcohol is very aggressive and will kill off not only the bad "stuff", but the good "stuff" as well. When the good "stuff" is killed off, the immune system will become compromised leading to a weaken resistance to illnesses. So, what to do? Well, this is a great example of how CPTG essential oils can play a big roll in protection. Just the act of placing a drop of melaleuca (tea tree oil) will sanitize the hands sufficiently, while preserving the good "stuff". To increase the immune system, the use of oregano and the OnGuard Protective blend is an incredible support system. Oregano is very effective against the bad "stuff", in fact, recent studies from the University of Western England have found oregano as being a powerful anti-microbial, killing more effectively than the 18 anti-biotics that it was compared to.
The OnGuard Protective blend is a great "all in one" oil that consists of wild orange, clove bud, cinnamon, eucalyptus, and rosemary. It has been formulated to support healthy immune function. Oregano, together with OnGuard Protective blend presents a very powerful way to protect oneself during these times.
Tim - We have been diffusing OnGuard and oregano in our home. I love the fact that essential oils "leave the good stuff alone!"
Debbie - Using the OnGuard along with oregano as a protection against the bugs, how much do you recommend daily? In fact, I find myself as standard practice putting a couple drops of a bunch of oils in about a half cup of water before I go to bed or in the morning. Is this a good practice? By taking too many oils at once, do I dilute the effectiveness of one? Would it be better to take a couple drops in water of each oil at different times? Are two drops about standard dose daily if you aren't dealing with some major problem?Deborah - Great questions, the amount will very from person to person as each person may react differently. At the first sign of a viral flu (whether or not Swine related) Dr. Hill recommended the amounts of: 8 drops oregano, 5 drops OnGuard and 3 drops frankincense (these amounts are for adults) in a capsule twice a day. This could then be tapered down as symptoms begin to subside and don't stop until all lingering symptoms have abated. Many times we stop the treatment(s) too soon.
Cindy - Is anyone worried about swine flu? My friend said Dr. Hill talked about it at a recent meeting. Can anyone help on this?Monica - Please enlighten me on steps for dealing with a pandemic flu. I would like to be prepared just in case. Thanks!
Raymundoss - Early indicators are that this form of flu is mild, so we will treat this like any other flu season. As far as Dr. Hill is concerned I'll concede he is pretty smart. I went to the meeting ready to pick apart his science facts but after listening I guess we'll keep him around. He said that the natural chemistry in the oils is the best combatant for these infectious diseases. We have OnGuard, (can be used as a hand sanitizer) and oregano is a heavy hitter. That stuff is amazing. The more personal research i do the more I trust it against anything. Above all though, WASH YOUR HANDS frequently, Keep your own immune system strong, get enough rest, and be smart when someone around you is already ill.
Pony (on 14 Oct 2009) - Oregano is the poor man's Frankincense. I have COPD so I cannot afford to be compromised with a flu bug. Oregano is my savior! I started using oregano this last spring (because I ran out of frankincense and couldn't afford more). I put 8 drops in a shot glass of water with a few drops of lemon to cut the heat and drank it. I did this 3-4 times a day for a week. Then I backed off for a few days, but the bug, a Super Bug, Pseudomonas Arugenosa, came back. And I couldn't breathe again. So, I started this regimen again.
After a couple months, I now take the mix when I feel something coming on or a tightness in my chest. I now mix only a few drops of the oregano with birch and lemon. You can back off or spread it out over a longer period of time as long as the problem comes under control. This also worked to stop a bout of shingles this spring. It only lasted 4 weeks and it was gone! A double wammy spring. But it has been the clearest (lungs) summer I have enjoyed in a long time! It is awesome to be able to breathe deep and not wheeze or start coughing!
I also use Breathe daily. Put a couple drops in my hand and cup over my nose & breathe slow at first, then deeply, until you can't smell the oil anymore. Clears you right out!
Deb - We are sick in our home and have been off and on for three weeks now. We have had every symptom of this awful flu and most of us can't remember when we have ever been so sick. Just when we think we have rid our home and family of the germs, someone else comes down with it again. I am hanging on everything suggested with the oils and trying to get our family well. Thank you for the tips and if anyone has any other testimonials in killing this flu bug, please share.
Rob – Deb, I'm so sorry you're facing this right now, and I'm sure having the flu is present in your home is not be a fun ordeal, and further it would definitely be scary. Most populations are not experiencing many cases of flu right now, however, the scare gives us an opportunity to take inventory of what we need and have to combat viral breakouts especially flu.
Oils that are an important part of your germ fighting arsenal and that are good to have around are; OnGuard, oregano, cinnamon, myrrh, basil, clove, lemon, peppermint, and other oils used in the AromaTouch Technique. These essential oils have the ability to kill bacteria, fungi and viruses, get down into the cellular level and make things right. Essential oils are proven natural combatants to boost the immune system and protect us from and combat against flu strains including the swine flu.
BK- I work in the hospital, the ER is full of people with "flu symptoms." Most of them turn out to be allergies, but when the media and feeling of panic are in the air, terrified people come in at the first sign of anything bad!! I keep thinking, is there anyplace worse you can come than a hospital if you are afraid of being sick!! It's like announcing; "Everyone that has the flu, or wants it if they don't yet have it, come to the hospital!" We don't take flu symptoms lightly, but we don't scare the public and cause panic because right now we are spread thin.
On a note about flu, I have found that at the very first sign of a cold or flu, making a inhaler with 8 drops of OnGuard and 3 drops of oregano and using it often, deep breaths with the other nostril closed can help reduce the spread of virus. Once you have a flu apply oils at a high frequency, trying many different oils and applications till you find what is best for you. Oregano, thyme, myrrh, cinnamon, OnGuard blend, Breathe blend, eucalyptus, cypress, and/or peppermint. Do these with a variety of applications, ie spinal treatments, reflexology, sinus massages, chest massages and compresses.
Pat – I visited with Deb and she is just recovering from a pretty difficult viral strain as some of her family still suffers. For Deb and her family I am hoping that she is running her diffuser constantly with OnGuard and taking capsules with lemon and oregano. At a meeting it was suggested by Emily that we add thyme to our regiment of wellness oils, so add some thyme to the capsules.
Deb - Thanks. I appreciated the tip on the thyme, which I have added to my list. I also started oregano yesterday with the remaining sick ones. I personally took the 8 drops with other oils added to a little water and did fine, but my 25-year-old daughter about shot me. I thought I had killed her for a few minutes but then after a minute she was fine. Guess I'll have to go to the capsules for her. Is there any reason why we can't just take the oils without capsules if we can handle it? I am spraying OnGuard on bed sheets but need a little help on the proper ratio of oil to water to be used in a disinfectant spray. Will that be good for the countertops as well as the bed sheets?
Pat - Yes, taking the oregano or OnGuard by mouth is going to give quicker results but the capsules are a little gentler. For a disinfectant I add 7 drops of oil to 8 ounces of water and it works out well.
Rex - Recently we arrived in Arizona and while visiting a family members home we (wife and I) apparently picked up a flu virus that is going around this area. Of course we had it before we realized it but belatedly started oregano and OnGuard both internal and diffused to try to minimize the impact. It was still 2 or 3 days of real discomfort with sore throat/fever, then stuffy/runny nose, then coughing but comparing it with others that had it as well it seemed our discomfort days were not as intense or as many as theirs. The other thing we did was minimize the symptom discomfort. In this case some things worked better for my wife and others worked better for me.
· Sore Throat: Oregano internally (it IS hot, be careful) seemed to work for both of us. Also I found relief and speedier healing by using Frankincense externally on my throat.
· Fever: Peppermint, as advertised, has a cooling effect and works for a short time. My best action was a wet towel over my face, maybe I should have put some Eucalyptus on the towel.
· Stuffy/Runny Nose: My wife found herbal tea with Wild Orange helped and she took a lot of vitamin C. We both used the "hayfever remedy" of 2 d Lavender, 2 d Lemon, 4 d Peppermint in a mouthful of water. Swish in mouth 20-30 seconds and slowly swallow. My wife said she would swish in her mouth till she could feel her sinuses open up and then swallow.
· Congestion/Cough: Eucalyptus and Breath both topically on the chest/throat and diffused.Can't say that we didn't suffer but the oils relieved some of the symptoms and compared to others we have talked to it appears our immune systems were strengthened and we weren't affected as long.
Protocols folks recommend for children
Jen - The Swine Flu has been reported in our area and I have read about using essential oils to help. With regards to our children, since my small ones can't swallow capsules, if the need arises, can I apply oregano to their feet with coconut oil, as well as use the spinal treatment? You said to use appropriate oils on their feet. Which oils are those?Rob - For children and infants that can’t take internal treatments, use appropriate oils on their feet, thighs, chest and using the spinal treatment. Use carrier oils before applying the hotter oils such as oregano, OnGuard, cinnamon and possibly peppermint. Oils that are an important part of your germ-fighting arsenal and would be appropriate to apply to children and ourselves are; OnGuard blend, oregano, cinnamon, myrrh, basil, clove, lemon, peppermint, and other oils used in the AromaTouch Technique.
Monica - Dr. Hill was just here and Swine Flu was something he discussed with us. What Dr. Hill taught us, was that the Dr. Mom Kit (Lavender, Lemon, Peppermint, Melaleuca, Oregano, Deep Blue®, Breathe, DigestZen™, and On Guard™) contains everything we need to protect the health of our families from this (and of course other) health challenges. Yes! He said Oregano can be applied to the feet of small children – and in fact, we even had a 3 month-old infant in the room, so Dr. Hill addressed this mother directly about this. He suggested a dilution with the Fractionated Coconut Oil.
Also he said diffusing OnGuard is something he would recommend. He said, regarding frequency, that twice per day is sufficient; that some people may choose to use the diffuser more frequently than that, but in his opinion, doing so isn’t necessary.
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What Science & Research are sayingBMC Complement Altern Med. 2010 Nov 15;10:69.; Wu S, Patel KB, Booth LJ, Metcalf JP, Lin HK, Wu W.; Department of Respiratory Medicine, the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006, PR China.
BACKGROUND:Influenza is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The recent pandemic of a novel H1N1 influenza virus has stressed the importance of the search for effective treatments for this disease. Essential oils from aromatic plants have been used for a wide variety of applications, such as personal hygiene, therapeutic massage and even medical practice. In this paper, we investigate the potential role of an essential oil in antiviral activity.
METHODS:We studied a commercial essential oil blend, On Guard™, and evaluated its ability in modulating influenza virus, A/PR8/34 (PR8), infection in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Influenza virus was first incubated with the essential oil and infectivity in MDCK cells was quantified by fluorescent focus assay (FFA). In order to determine the mechanism of effects of essential oil in viral infection inhibition, we measured hemagglutination (HA) activity, binding and internalization of untreated and oil-treated virus in MDCK cells by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. In addition, the effect of oil treatment on viral transcription and translation were assayed by relative end-point RT-PCR and western blot analysis.
RESULTS:Influenza virus infectivity was suppressed by essential oil treatment in a dose-dependent manner; the number of nascent viral particles released from MDCK cells was reduced by 90% and by 40% when virus was treated with 1:4,000 and 1:6,000 dilutions of the oil, respectively. Oil treatment of the virus also decreased direct infection of the cells as the number of infected MDCK cells decreased by 90% and 45% when virus was treated with 1:2,000 and 1:3,000 dilutions of the oil, respectively. This was not due to a decrease in HA activity, as HA was preserved despite oil treatment. In addition, oil treatment did not affect virus binding or internalization in MDCK cells. These effects did not appear to be due to cytotoxicity of the oil as MDCK cell viability was only seen with concentrations of oil that were 2 to 6 times greater than the doses that inhibited viral infectivity. RT-PCR and western blotting demonstrated that oil treatment of the virus inhibited viral NP and NS1 protein, but not mRNA expression.
CONCLUSIONS:An essential oil blend significantly attenuates influenza virus PR8 infectivity in vitro without affecting viral binding or cellular internalization in MDCK cells. Oil treated virus continued to express viral mRNAs but had minimal expression of viral proteins, suggesting that the antiviral effect may be due to inhibition of viral protein translation.
Letters in Applied Microbiology, Volume 49 Issue 6
Aims: To investigate the in vitro antiviral activity of Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (TTO) and its main components, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, terpinolene and α-terpineol.
Methods and Results: The antiviral activity of tested compounds was evaluated against polio type 1, ECHO 9, Coxsackie B1, adeno type 2, herpes simplex (HSV) type 1 and 2 viruses by 50% plaque reduction assay. The anti-influenza virus assay was based on the inhibition of the virus-induced cytopathogenicity. Results obtained from our screening demonstrated that the TTO and some of its components (the terpinen-4-ol, the terpinolene, the α-terpineol) have an inhibitory effect on influenza A/PR/8 virus subtype H1N1 replication at doses below the cytotoxic dose. The ID50 value of the TTO was found to be 0·0006% (v/v) and was much lower than its CD50 (0·025% v/v). All the compounds were ineffective against polio 1, adeno 2, ECHO 9, Coxsackie B1, HSV-1 and HSV-2. None of the tested compounds showed virucidal activity. Only a slight virucidal effect was observed for TTO (0·125% v/v) against HSV-1 and HSV-2.
Conclusions: These data show that TTO has an antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8 virus subtype H1N1 and that antiviral activity has been principally attributed to terpinen-4-ol, the main active component.
Significance and Impact of the Study: TTO should be a promising drug in the treatment of influenza virus infection.
Parasitol Res. 2010 Jul;107(2):327-35. Epub 2010 Apr 20; Koliopoulos G, Pitarokili D, Kioulos E, Michaelakis A, Tzakou O.; Laboratory of Insecticides of Public Health Importance, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 S. Delta str. 14561 Kifissia, Athens, Greece.
The volatile metabolites of wild-growing Mentha spicata, M. longifolia, M. suaveolens, Melissa officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, S. pomifera subsp. calycina, and S. pomifera subsp. pomifera from Greece were determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The insecticidal properties of the analyzed essential oils were screened on Culex pipiens larvae. Additionally two of the main components of the essential oils, piperitenone oxide and 1,8-cineole were assayed against C. pipiens in order to define the affiliation between them and the larvicidal properties of the oils. The most effective oils were M. suaveolens (major constituent piperitenone oxide, 62.4%), M. spicata (piperitenone oxide, 35.7% and 1,8-cineole, 14.5%) and M. longifolia--Central Greece (piperitenone oxide, 33.4%; 1,8-cineole, 24.5% and trans-piperitone epoxide, 17.4%), which exhibited LC(50) values ranging from 47.88 to 59.33 mg l(-1). Medium activity revealed the oils of M. officinalis (terpin-4-ol, 15.8%; caryophyllene oxide, 13.2%; sabinene, 12.9%; beta-pinene, 12.1%; and trans-caryophyllene, 10.2%), M. longifolia--Southern Greece (carvone, 54.7% and limonene 20.0%), S. pomifera subsp. pomifera (trans-caryophyllene, 22.5% and trans-thujone, 21.0%), S. pomifera subsp. calycina--West Southern Greece (trans-thujone, 56.1% and 1,8-cineole, 10.4%), and S. fruticosa--population 2 (camphor, 23.1%; alpha-pinene, 12.7%; and borneol, 12.6%), with LC(50) values ranging from 78.28 to 91.45 mg l(-1). S. pomifera subsp. calycina (Central Greece) essential oil (trans-thujone, 26.5% and cis-thujone, 12.0%) presented rather low activity (LC(50) values 140.42 mg l(-1)), while S. fruticosa--population 1 (1,8-cineole, 31.4% and camphor, 22.6%) was the only inactive oil. Additionally, the constituent piperitenone oxide was found to be highly active (LC(50) values 9.95 mg l(-1)), whereas 1,8-cineole revealed no toxicity.
Molecules. 2009 Feb 18;14(2):839-49; Melliou E, Michaelakis A, Koliopoulos G, Skaltsounis AL, Magiatis P.; Department of Pharmacognosy and Natural Products Chemistry, University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis-Zografou, Greece. email@example.com
Tauhe essential oils contained in the rind of the fruit and the leaves of bergamot from Greece (Citrus aurantium subsp. bergamia) were studied. The bergamot trees in question were cultivated on Kefalonia Island. The plant material (leaves and fruits in different stages of maturity) was collected between December and March for a two year period. The rind of the fruit was separated manually and the essential oil was obtained either by cold pressing or by hydrodistillation. The maximum yield calculated on a wet weight of fresh rinds basis was 1.8%. The essential oils were first analyzed by GC-MS with a DB-5 column and then with a beta-Dex enantiomeric column. The main constituent of the cold pressed essential oil of the rind was (-)-linalyl acetate with optical purity >99.9%. Other important constituents were (-)-linalool, (+)-limonene and gamma-terpinene. The best value of linalool/linalyl acetate ratio was 0.38 and the maximum sum of linalool+linalyl acetate was found to be 55.8%. The larvacidal activities of the obtained essential oils and the compounds (+/-)-linalyl acetate, (+/-)-linalool and (-)-linalool were evaluated against larvae of the mosquito species Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae), the West Nile virus vector, under laboratory conditions. The cold pressed essential oil showed an LC(50) value of 58 mg/L, while the LC(50) value of the corresponding essential oil obtained by hydrostillation was 106 mg/L. The essential oil of the leaves presented similar larvicidal toxicity with the cold pressed oil of the rind (LC(50)=68 mg/L).